Explore
Home 
Literature 
Links 
Posts 
Molecules 
Blogs 
Zeitgeist 
Markup Help 
News 
Everything Papers Books
Pan assay interference compounds (PAINS) have become a paradigm for compound classes that might cause artifacts in biological assays. PAINS-defining substructures are typically contained in larger compounds. We have systematically examined X-ray structures of protein-ligand complexes for compounds containing PAINS motifs. In 2874 X-ray structures, 1107 unique ligands with PAINS substructures belonging to 70 different classes were identified. PAINS most frequently detected in crystallographic ligands included a number of prominent candidates such as quinones, catechols, or Mannich bases. However, on the basis of X-ray data, the presence of specific ligand-target interactions and reactivity under assay conditions were not mutually exclusive. In some instances, reactivity of ligands was likely responsible for complex formation. Different categories of PAINS-containing ligands were distinguished, which aided in the interpretation of specific interactions versus potential assay artifacts. Careful consideration of structural data adds another dimension to the analysis of interference compounds.

Posts

It’s safe to say that the concept of “pan-assay interference compounds” evokes some strong feelings in medicinal chemists. And those feelings run in several directions: some people are very glad to have a tool with which to winnow down their...