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To quantitatively evaluate brain tissue and its corresponding function, knowledge of the 3D cellular distribution is essential. The gold standard to obtain this information is histology, a destructive and labor-intensive technique where the specimen is sliced and examined under a light microscope, providing 3D information at nonisotropic resolution. To overcome the limitations of conventional histology, we use phase-contrast X-ray tomography with optimized optics, reconstruction, and image analysis, both at a dedicated synchrotron radiation endstation, which we have equipped with X-ray waveguide optics for coherence and wavefront filtering, and at a compact laboratory source. As a proof-of-concept demonstration we probe the 3D cytoarchitecture in millimeter-sized punches of unstained human cerebellum embedded in paraffin and show that isotropic subcellular resolution can be reached at both setups throughout the specimen. To enable a quantitative analysis of the reconstructed data, we demonstrate automatic cell segmentation and localization of over 1 million neurons within the cerebellar cortex. This allows for the analysis of the spatial organization and correlation of cells in all dimensions by borrowing concepts from condensed-matter physics, indicating a strong short-range order and local clustering of the cells in the granular layer. By quantification of 3D neuronal "packing," we can hence shed light on how the human cerebellum accommodates 80% of the total neurons in the brain in only 10% of its volume. In addition, we show that the distribution of neighboring neurons in the granular layer is anisotropic with respect to the Purkinje cell dendrites.

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http://www.pnas.org/content/115/27/6940 [ Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. vol. 115 pp. 6940 – 6945 ’18 ] demonstrates an incredible new way to visualize brain structures. I don’t think the paper is behind a paywall, so follow the link and look at the...